Dadaism and Surrealism

Other Modernist movements: Cubism, Futurism, Symbolism

The Dada Manifesto, Tristan Tzara

Tristan Tzara                           Jean (Hans) Arp, Tzara, Hans Richter


1. Where: Zürich, Cafe Voltaire

2. Who: Tzara, Hans Richter, Andre Breton, Richard Huelsenbeck, Marcel Duchamp, Hugo Ball, Jean (Hans) Arp, Max Ernst

A Brief Chronology of DaDa

(as drawn from various sources; )

André Breton


1. Where: Paris, New York

2. Who: Breton, Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte,
Joan Miro, Paul Klee, many of the Dadaists

3. How: Breton's Surrealist Revolution

Brief Chronology (1918-33)


Breton's  Manifesto


Dali enters movement

Dali, Memory

Max Ernst, L'Ange du foyer ou Le Triomphe du surréalisme (1937)

Joan Miro, Pipa   (Pipe)                                                                            Retrato (Portrait)

Rene Magritte, This is not a pipe

Rene Magritte, The Great War

Beyond Art and Literature: Music and Film

Music: Erik Satie: Collaborated (with Picasso,
Jean Cocteau, Massine) on the ballet Parade (1915); Socrates (1919)

Film: Hans Richter: Film Studies (1926), Ghosts before Breakfast (1927)

(German) Expressionism

Definition: Early 20th-century literary, artistic movement that sought to depict the workings of the subconscious mind through fantasy, primitivism, distortion, and exaggeration. Sometimes referred to as a "non-naturalistic" movement, it worked toward "a refined realism, harmony, and beauty with exaggeration, distortion, and dissonance; subtle feelings with intense emotion, terror, fury, agony; and aristocratic reserve with democratic appeals to mankind” ("Expressionism" 336).

Kirchner, Berlin Street Scene (1913)

Max Beckmann, Family Picture (1920)

Egon Schiele, Johann Harms (1916)

Wassily Kandinsky, Composition No. 6 (1913)

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919, Wiene)

- Innovative use of lighting and staging

- Influenced film noir (1940s) and the horror genre

- Prescient treatment of topic of authoritative control

- Psychological fantasy

Sigmund Freud, "The Uncanny," in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. & trs. James Strachey, vol. XVII (London: Hogarth, 1953), pp. 219-252 (BF173.F68 in Davidson Library).

"Uncanny" is translated from "unheimlich," meaning haunted (literally--not homey)

From Professor Warner/Transcriptions Project: Uncanny = effect comes from the supervening of the earlier unconscious event upon a later one; the subject experiences something as that which is both strange and familiar, odd but intimate, alien but all too "close." Freud suggests that the most strange, eerie and scary comes not from what is far away from our experience and feelings (the exotic, foreign, the utterly new and alien) but from what is close to home, the private and the familiar which has been rendered secret through repression, but then returns.

Suggested links:

Works Cited

"Expressionism." Benet's Reader Encyclopedia. NY: Haper Collins, 1996. 335-36. <> Accessed April 2009.